The Human Eye: Structure, Function & Care of the Eye

The Eye

Our eyes are a very important part of our face. Apart from seeing with them, they often show how we feel within us. When we laugh, our eyes laugh with us, but when we are sad our eyes cloud up with tears. It is therefore necessary to take good care of the eyes.


Structure of the Eye

The eye consists of many parts and each part performs different functions. If we understand each part, it will help us to know how the eye functions and how to care for it. Many parts of the eye are hidden and so cannot be seen.

The eye is made up of the following parts: eyelids

i. Eye balls

ii. Eye lashes

iii. Pupil

iv. Lens

v. Eyebrow

vi. Iris

vii. Cornea

viii. Retina

ix. Aqueous humour

x. Vitreous humour

xi. Tear gland.

Functions of parts of the Eye

The Eyelid:

This protects the eye from objects that may drop in it. It is very sensitive.

The Eyeball:

This is connected to the optical nerve and it is used for seeing.

The Eye lashes:

This contains hairs that protect the eye fmm dust and heavy wind.

The Pupil:

The pupil helps to control the amount of light that enters the eye.

The Lens:

It helps to form image on the retina of the eye.

The Eyebrow:

This does not allow water or sweat to how into the eyeballs.

The Iris:

This functions to maintain the ability of the pupil to control the amount of light that enters into the eye.

The Cornea:

It prevents dust and dirt from passing through the pupil of the eye.

The Retina:

The retina forms the image of an object in the eye.

The Tear glands:

They help to produce tears in the eye which carries any foreign substance that has entered the eye along with them. They cause tears to flow out when one is crying.

The Aqueous humour:

This is a transparent fluid that helps to maintain the shape and provide a moist situation inside the eye.

The Vitreous humour:

This is a colourless transparent fluid that fills the back of the eyeball.

Equipment and Materials for Eye care

Cosmetics are usually used for caring for the eye. They include: eyeliners or kohI/tiro, eye pencil, eye shadow and mascara.

Procedure for Care of the Eye

There are two methods for the care of the eye. They are:

a. The traditional method; and

b. The modern method.

The Traditional Method

This is a method used by ladies in the rural areas for their eye make-up. This method involves the use of eyeliner in form of kohl, used mostly by old women in the rural areas. Kohl or tiro is usually powdery and used to darken areas around the eyes. It is usually stored in little leather or metal container. It is applied with a little metallic stick, and it is still in use in many rural communities.

The Modern Method

The method of eye make-up practised today in Nigeria was initially brought to the country by those who travelled abroad and returned with them. It involves the use of eye shadows, mascara, and eyeliners to make the face look attractive.

Eye shadows come in different forms. They can be in the form of a pencil or powder. Eye make-up should be applied in the right amount in order not to look funny.

Prevention and Control of Eye Problems

Treat the eyes with care. In doing so, you should always obey the following rules:

1. When you are reading or sewing, make sure you hold your book, sewing or other handwork materials in such a way that it is not too near or too far from your eyes.

2. You should also make sure that you always use light that is neither too bright nor too dull.

3. Sometimes, the sun is very bright and we need to protect our eyes with sunglasses which have dark lenses.

4. Do not read in the bright sunlight without protecting your eyes.

5. If lanterns or candles are being used for reading, do not read for too long hours without resting your eyes.

6. Sitting too close to a television set can affect your eyes, therefore, avoid it.

7. Avoid sharing eye care equipment with somebody with eye problems.

8. Report any eye problem immediately to the doctor.

9. Always bath your eye with clean water and use clean towel.

10. Avoid self medication in controlling eye problems.

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Oluchi Chukwu

Oluchi is a seasoned Information blogger, content developer and the editor of Nigerian Queries. She is a tech enthusiast who loves reading, writing and research

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